It is known by direct observation that stars in their galaxies have been and are accumulating to the outer fringes of their galaxies at a constant acceleration within the galaxy. The current speed reached by the stars in the Milky Way is 200 km/sec. Likewise the galaxies themselves are collectively receding from their point of origin in the universe and also repelling one-another with a constant acceleration of the same value as that of the stars within a galaxy. Scientists have attributed the phenomena to forces produced by so-called dark matter and energy.

This account is wrong.

The actual explanation can be found by exploring Clifford Algebra and its role in quantizing the gravitational field. In the manuscript, The Pythagorean Theorem and Physics, it is shown that there exists a real force that does not interact with Newtonian Gravity but does exert a negative gravitational force that is responsible for the observed expansion phenomena. Preparatory to this explanation, the document shows that gravity has the same structure as electromagnetism and may be similarly quantized.

In addition, the 43 seconds of arc advance per century of the Perihelion of Mercury not included in the 5,500 seconds of arc predicted by Newtonian gravitational theory are accounted for. This work occupies the major portion of the manuscript. Essential contributions come from Clifford Algebra and the validity of Fermat's Last Theorem which was only proven as late as the mid 1990s. The anomalous behavior of the galaxies is discussed in detail in the latter portion of the document.

A summary of key concepts from the manuscript are presented here.

You may obtain a spiral bound copy of the manuscript at cost by mailing a check for $25 to:

Natalie Beavers
Central Duplicating Services
University of Georgia
210 Spring Street
Athens, Georgia